‘Abandon All Hope’—Akumajo Dracula and Dante’s Divine Comedy

The Inferno’s Influence on the Castlevania’s Past and Present

The long-running Akumajo Dracula series, better known in English as Castlevania, has always made references to classic literature. However, evil’s roots go deep, and it’s not so much Bram Stoker’s Dracula, as Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy, particular his depiction of Hell in Inferno, that informs much of the franchise.

The Castlevania series, known in Japanese as Akumajo Dracula, has been a staple of console gaming almost since its inception, and has grown with the medium from a side-scrolling adventure game to the massive 3-D models that make up modern gaming. Centered around the villainous Dracula and the family that hunts him, the games borrow some elements from Bram Stoker’s novel, but ultimately have very little in common with the book itself beyond its main antagonist. A much more recurring reference source is Dante’s Divine Comedy, in particular the most famous part of the trilogy, The Inferno, which influenced the structure of the original game, and has continued to inspire plot points well into the game’s reboot.

‘There is a reason why all things are as they are.’ Bram Stoker, Dracula

Naturally, the first bit of classic literature that comes to mind in relation to Castlevania is Bram Stoker’s Dracula, the novel that, with only a little help from earlier works like Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s Carmilla or Lord Byron’s Varney the Vampyre, brought vampires into the limelight and into the collective consciousness for over a hundred years. Castlevania acknowledges this; the original game features in its credits Bela Lugosi and Christopher Lee and the name “Vram Stoker,” credited as the game’s screenwriter as a half-parody, half-tribute to the author [ 1 ]. Brahm’s Mansion in Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest is named for the author as well [ 2 ].

The microcosm of Dracula as a stand-in for the Christian Lucifer, as a Lord of Hell, a tragic figure that is both to be feared and pitied, is not an accident.

Beyond the use of vampires and the name Dracula, however, the games do not have much in common with Bram Stoker’s novel at all. One exception is Castlevania: Bloodlines, developed for the Mega Drive, which sought to tie the game series to the novel by making the protagonist the son of Quincey Morris, one of the characters in Bram Stoker’s novel [ 3 ]. What little plot is present in the original 1986 version of Castlevania specifies that Simon Belmont—an original character, too young, male, and action-oriented to be a direct analogue of Abraham Van Helsing or the Harkers—is traveling to Dracula’s castle, which appears only every hundred years, to kill Dracula in 1691, two centuries before Stoker’s novel is said to take place, give or take a year.

Belmont, the titular “vampire killer,” has very little in common with either of the generally accepted protagonists in Stoker’s novel, Van Helsing and Mina Harker. Dr. Van Helsing, while often reinterpreted in modern versions as a classical vampire-killing badass who is somewhat in line with Belmont, was much closer to a dotty, absent-minded professor in Stoker’s novel, where he served as a sort of avatar for the author. While Van Helsing does get a few good moments, such as his hand in killing the vampiric remains of Lucy Westenra, he is rarely portrayed as the lantern-jawed hero that Belmont is. Lucy’s suitor, John Seward, describes him in a letter as:

[A] seemingly arbitrary [a word which here means whimsical or capricious] man, this is because he knows what he is talking about better than any one else. He is a philosopher and a metaphysician, and one of the most advanced scientists of his day, and he has, I believe, an absolutely open mind. [ 4 ]

Stoker also uses Van Helsing as a source of jokes at the expense of foreigners in general, through the classic tropes of writing some words in his accent, having him burst into exclamations in a foreign language (although Stoker uses German, rather than Helsing’s native Dutch), and stilted syntax, such as Van Helsing’s line “He infect you in such wise, that even if he do no more, you have only to live” [ 4 ].

Another example is Van Helsing’s misinterpretation of British cursing, which is clearly included as a joke to the British audience. “Whereupon the captain tell him that he had better be quick—with blood—for that his ship will leave the place—of blood—before the turn of the tide—with blood” [ 4 ]. This is done intentionally, as it contrasts him with Dracula. In the first chapter, Jonathan Harker takes note of “a vast number of English books … A table in the center was littered with English magazines and newspapers … The books were of the most varied kind … all relating to England and English life and customs and manners” [ 4 ].

Dracula prides himself on his proper pronunciation and invites Harker to his castle both to learn about British culture and to learn proper English. Dracula associates his mastery of his language with his class, and when Harker compliments him on his explicitly flawless pronunciation, the vampire says, “I know that, did I move and speak in your London, none there are who would not know me for a stranger. That is not enough for me. Here I am noble” [ 4 ]. Simon Belmont, then, is not suited to the role of Van Helsing.

Thus, as the hunter that enters Dracula’s castle, Jonathan Harker is perhaps the more obvious comparison to Belmont. While there is certainly a similarity there, Harker is invited into Dracula’s castle in the interest of helping him purchase some real estate in England, not to kill him—at least, not in Stoker’s version, although the Hammer Horror films did subvert these expectations [ 4 ].

Harker must then escape Dracula’s castle; in other words, if Simon Belmont is in any way an analogue to Jonathan Harker, he is an intentional reversal of the character, entering Dracula’s lair instead of fleeing it, and hunting him instead of helping him. From there, the plot diverges even more, leaving Dracula’s castle behind to focus on his victims Lucy Westenra and Mina Murray and stopping into the castle only as part of the greater plan to weaken Dracula.

The game also introduces a number of elements that have no clear equivalents in the novel: Dracula’s minions, such as Frankenstein’s Monster, Igor, mummies, Medusa, and Death itself (1). In the novel, the only other monsters living in Dracula’s castle are his Brides, and they are less helpful than they are rivals [ 4 ].

Indeed, it is made very clear that Dracula has no direct servants, as Harker looks all over the castle for them and can find none. “I have not yet seen a servant anywhere, or heard a sound near the castle except the howling of wolves” [ 4 ]. Castlevania II does feature a closer reference to Stoker’s novel by including villagers whom Belmont can interact with, feeding him clues or lies, much like the many villagers who interact with Harker in chapter two of Dracula, but this does not serve to bring the game significantly closer to the novel (2). Clearly, Bram Stoker’s Dracula was only a vague inspiration, not an intentional reference.

‘Into the eternal darkness, into fire and into ice.’ Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy

Dracula’s first words in Stoker’s novel are to Harker, “Welcome to my house! Enter freely and of your own free will!” [ 4 ]. This is a much more enthusiastic and uplifting, but less sinister and genuine greeting than the famous words inscribed on the entrance to Hell in Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy: “All hope abandon, ye who enter here” [ 5 ].

As our viewpoint into the Inferno, or into Castlevania’s boundaries on Limbo, the parallels between Dante as the protagonist, and Simon Belmont are profound.

It’s with Dante’s Inferno that we begin to see a thematic similarity. Even in the broadest of summaries, the two stories are clearly similar, centering on one virtuous hero’s descent into a realm of depravity in order to confront their narrative’s embodiment of evil. That being said, a broad description like this can also be applied to works like Joseph Conrad’s classic novel Heart of Darkness or the Francis Ford Coppola film it inspired, Apocalypse Now, but even in the details, the similarities between the classic Akumajo Dracula formula and Dante’s Inferno are strong enough to surpass those to Conrad’s works and derivatives.

The castle is established in the game’s lore as being an entity of chaos, and not part of the physical world, much like how Hell is not part of the physical world [ 6 ]. As the player sends Belmont deeper into the castle, the music gets louder the closer they get to the main villain. Another issue that comes up in Akumajo Dracula which can be related to Dante’s Divine Comedy is the condemnation of corruption, particularly among church figures.

Alighieri was fairly bold in his inclusion of both historical and contemporaneous figures as being trapped in Hell. This ranged from unnamed “clergymen, popes and cardinals” in the circle of Greed as a commentary on the corruption in the church at the time, to figures as recent as Giovanni Malatesta, who died in 1304, only four years before Alighieri is said to have started writing the Divine Comedy, and 16 years before it was published [ 5 ]. For context, this would be the equivalent of Castlevania: Lords of Shadow depicting Kurt Cobain in Hell, being punished for his suicide.

Neither Lords of Shadow, nor any other Akumajo Dracula game has ever been so bold as to depict real life contemporary figures as its villains, but it does retain the spirit of Canto VII’s condemnation of corruption. In Lords of Shadow in particular, Gabriel Belmont’s mission as a member of the Brotherhood of Light is to take down tyrants in the hopes of bringing balance to the world. Across the board, the authority figures in Lords of Shadow are portrayed as ignorant and incompetent. The most direct parallel is Abbot Vincent Dorin, a corrupt monk who selfishly used a holy relic to keep himself safe in a high tower of his abbey while allowing vampires to overrun the city and attack the villagers.

While Abbot Dorin’s sin is not greed—Dante would most likely condemn him to the ninth circle, for treachery—it still holds that he used his position as a member of the church to take something the people needed away from them and kept it for himself. His description also resembles one at the beginning of Inferno to Pope Celestine IV, whose “cowardice (in selfish terror for his own welfare) served as the door through which so much evil entered the Church” [ 7 ].

This thematic reference to the ineptitude of those in authority is something that’s mostly original to the later games in the series; earlier games, particularly Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest and Castlevania III: Dracula’s Curse, are much more forgiving, structuring their plot around a Big Brother-like savior. In Simon’s Quest, or Seal of the Curse, as it’s known in the original Japanese, Simon Belmont is seen as an anti-tyranny hero, going through cities and liberating them from Dracula’s influence. The third game takes this to another level, with Simon’s ancestor Trevor Belmont being drafted by the (implicitly Catholic) Church to hunt down and kill Dracula. In both cases, the protagonist is portrayed as a heroic authority who liberates the ignorant masses, as opposed to the later games questioning of authority in general.

‘I did not die, and yet I lost life’s breath.’ Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy.

Six levels separate Belmont from Dracula in the original NES Castlevania game, which, while shy of having a level for each circle of Hell, still tends to correspond with specific circles all the same. The first level of Hell, known as Limbo, is sometimes conflated with Purgatory, and is the destination, in Dante’s narrative, of the unbaptized and the “virtuous pagans,” who lived before Christ and thus had no opportunity to accept Him as their personal lord and savior. “For this failure and for no other fault / Here we are lost, and our sole punishment / Is without hope to live on in desire” [ 5 ].

Simon’s bride, Selena (known by various names in ancillary fiction), despite being largely written out of the narrative, remains an apocryphal parallel to Alighieri’s Beatrice.

In Limbo, Dante finds people who would have qualified for Heaven were it not for the unfortunate mistake of being born too early. In level 1 of the original Castlevania, which primarily takes place in some sort of foyer in Dracula’s castle, there are primarily two types of enemies. First there are animals, like dogs and bats, but there are also the vaguely humanoid creatures like shambling ghosts and Fish-Men from the moat.

One could be forgiven for reading these creatures as virtually innocent in their attack of Simon Belmont, acting on instinct simply because they inhabit the space that Simon is invading. The final boss, the Giant Bat, or Phantom Bat in some versions, is a similar sort of creature, defending its home but with no concept of good or evil.

The second circle of Hell is Lust, and here the poet begins to depict Hell as a realm of punishment. “And just as cranes in flight will chant their lays, / arraying their long file across the air, / so did the shades I saw approaching, borne / by that assailing wind, lament and moan” [ 5 ]. The references to wind and birds portray those imprisoned in this circle as helpless against the whims of their own lust.

The enemies in Level 2 of the original Castlevania are mainly composed of Armors (animated suits of armor), bats, and birds. The bird metaphor is somewhat represented, but more importantly, the Armors represent the notion that the denizens of Lust have no control over their actions. There is some dispute among the Akumajo Dracula fandom over whether Armors are undead, with the animated corpses of the former knights operating them, or if they are possessed by poltergeists.

Lastly is the boss of the level, Medusa, who bears resemblance to a few other creatures in the circle of Lust. First are the references to Greek figures like Dido, Helen of Troy, Paris, and Achilles; Lust is neither the first, nor the last circle to serve as the final destination for Greek figures, but the prominence of so many such figures does coincide with the classical Greek monster [ 5 ]. In addition, there is the character of Minos, a Greek monster with serpentine features not unlike Medusa herself, who guards the gates to the circle and judges all who try to pass. Unsurprisingly, later incarnations feature Medusa with a more sexualized design, furthering the connection with the sin of Lust.

The third circle, Gluttony, is fairly distinctive and has little resemblance whatsoever to the third level of the original NES game, which takes place in the shambles of Dracula’s towers—quite apart from the slush and icy rain of the third circle [ 5 ]. The fourth circle, however, the circle of Greed, does bear some thematic similarities. Its main enemies are skeletons, who resemble the emaciated figures trapped in the circle of Greed.

At the end of the level, Simon faces off against two Mummies. This is relevant for two reasons; first of all, in the circle of Greed, the inhabitants are described in this way: “So did they move around the sorry circle / from left and right to the opposing point” [ 5 ]. This notion is retained by positioning the two bosses on opposite ends of the battlefield and having them advance on each other while attacking Simon. In a more thematic sense, mummies are historically known for being buried with their possessions, in the hopes of retaining them in the afterlife; the epitome of greed.

The fifth circle is Wrath, and it takes place on the River Styx, where the inhabitants are “wedged in slime,” and Dante and Virgil are transported aboard a skiff [ 4 ]. This coincides perfectly with the fourth level of Castlevania, which takes place in the caverns beneath Dracula’s castle, with a river at the bottom of the screen from which the Fish-Men from the first level emerge. There is no skiff, but parts of the level have Simon riding moving platforms in a similar fashion.

Finally, the boss in question is Frankenstein’s Monster, assisted by the hunchback Igor. In Mary Shelley’s original novel, Frankenstein’s Monster was motivated by revenge against Frankenstein for forsaking him. In Dante’s Inferno, he could be compared to the Sullen, those whose wrath is passive.

In the Frankenstein film, meanwhile, Fritz, the hunchback who would inspire the creation of Igor for later adaptations, was an aggressive bully who antagonized the Monster until he killed him. Thus, he represents the Wrathful, those whose pick fights and attack each other in the River Styx. For the sixth circle, Dante describes the Heretics, naming Epicurus and his followers, whose primary crime is to claim that “the soul dies with the body” [ 4 ]. This focus on death matches nicely with the boss of the fifth level, who is the embodiment of mortality itself, the Grim Reaper.

‘The devil is not as black as he is painted.’ Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy.

And so, when Simon reaches Dracula himself, it seems we skip over circles seven, eight, and nine, and descend directly into the center of Hell to encounter the Devil himself. Dracula’s portrayal is not too similar to that of the Devil, who is described in the 34th canto: “I beheld three faces to his head! / One was in front of us, and that was red; / the other two were to the latter joined / right o’er the middle of each shoulder-blade, / and met each other where he had his crest” [ 5 ].

Dracula does not have three faces, but he does have three forms. First is his natural “Count” form, in which only his face is vulnerable. Once his health is depleted, his head turns into the Phantom Bat from level 1, representing the second face, and lastly there is the Spirit of Dracula, his final form, which is a winged gargoyle-like creature, not unlike Dante’s depiction of the Devil.

Fulfilling a ‘lancer’ archetype and subversive guide to several Belmonts entering a supernatural world he’s more familiar with, Alucard maps very neatly to Dante’s Virgil.

The main difference between the two villains is that Dracula is free and very mobile, teleporting across the screen in his Count form, and jumping all over the screen in his Spirit form. The Devil, however, is a prisoner in his own realm, trapped at the center of a frozen lake, which he himself keeps frozen with his icy sighs [ 5 ].

While Dracula is not so much imprisoned in his castle, and is, at least as far as the story discloses, free to come and go as he pleases, an argument could be made that he is spiritually imprisoned, cut off from the afterlife, hence his repeatedly returning to life in Castlevania II and other sequels. This imprisonment, like the Devil’s, is somewhat self-inflicted, as it is through his own decision to wield the Crimson Stone that he becomes immortal, as revealed in Castlevania: Lament of Innocence [ 8 ].

There is, of course, another character who very closely matches Alighieri’s portrayal of Satan, although he appears not in the original Nintendo continuity, but in Lords of Shadow, specifically in the Reverie DLC (downloadable content). The creature is known only as The Forgotten One, an ancient evil kept imprisoned by the titular Lords of Shadow, and accidentally released by Gabriel himself when he defeated them. He, or it, is described as a powerful demon, and is revealed to have been imprisoned at the center of Bernhardt castle, much like how Satan is imprisoned in the center of Hell. The Forgotten One’s design even harkens back to Gustave Doré’s illustration for the Inferno, as a gigantic creature with large horns, although he loses the two pairs of wings in favor of a suit of armor. According to the Castlevania wiki:

The demon was, at the time, the single most powerful entity ever encountered by mankind, surpassing even the Devil, Satan himself. With this power, the monster easily shook off the control of the summoners who brought him to Earth, before setting his sights on nothing short of the destruction of the entire world and every living thing in it. [ 9 ]

Its actual origins are never really elaborated on, though; there are theories as to what it may have been, including a fallen angel, like Satan, or one of the Old Gods, like Pan, Leviathan, or the Gorgon Sisters. The Reverie DLC is also ripe with ice and frost in its backdrops, bringing to mind Satan’s icy lake in Inferno. In the second and final DLC, Resurrection, the parallels to the center of Hell are emphasized by depicting the Forgotten One’s prison—and it is explicitly referred to as “Prison”—which is itself a pool, made not of ice, but of lava [ 10 ].

Just as Virgil and Dante must scramble up Satan’s body to escape Hell, the game then has Gabriel climb up the Forgotten One’s prison after him. Naturally, there is no climactic battle in Dante’s epic, but these connections, and the set-up of the battle—the horned giant in the center of a ring, with a constant pull of air towards a high point above—is clearly meant to evoke the imagery of Satan’s prison [ 10 ].

This game was followed up by a sequel, Mirror of Fate, set 25 years into the future and starring the grandson of Gabriel, Simon Belmont, who we meet as he wanders through the woods [ 11 ]. This is identical to how we meet Dante Alighieri, who starts Inferno lost in a forest. In fact, Gabriel is also seen at the start of Mirror of Fate wandering the woods, implying that the whole Belmont line is comparable to Dante in the Divine Comedy.

After these introductions, the game follows Simon to an underground entrance into the castle where the majority of the game will take place, where he is greeted by a being referred to only the Lost Soul. This segment is comparable to a number of aspects of the first Cantos of Inferno; first, there’s the entrance itself, which, could be seen as an analogue for the gates that lead into Underworld, especially given that, despite the game taking place in a castle, the entrance is nonetheless underground.

By its name, the Lost Soul may be a reference to the Uncommitted; those who never chose between good and evil in life and stand at the gates of Hell, neither condemned to enter Hell nor able to go to Heaven. However, the Lost Soul does enter the castle, and serves as a guide to Simon, as well as Trevor and Alucard, making him perhaps more of an analogue for Virgil. He presents Simon with the motivation to continue his campaign into the castle; the knowledge that within, he will find his father’s Combat Cross, which further ties him to Virgil, while also mirroring the relationship between Virgil and Beatrice.

The role of Virgil also could be offered to Alucard, who follows Simon through the castle, protecting him in the second act of the game. Again, the imagery surrounding Dracula resembles Satan’s lake of ice, with the throne room shrouded in cold, blue fire and an icy color palette.

These connections to Alighieri’s epic poem are strangely absent from the Netflix adaptation, which does not center around the steady ascent into Dracula’s castle as the early games did. Dracula is not a monster trapped in his lair, but a very mobile crusader, swearing vengeance in the first episode and exacting it in the first season’s finale [ 12 ]. Trevor does not go on an adventure, but instead leads a war against Dracula and his vampires.

While the series does feature a variety of characters comparable to mini-bosses—ranging from monsters to other vampires with fully fleshed-out personalities, they don’t have much of a connection, at least not one that seems intentional, with the beings in Inferno. Netflix’s Castlevania does feature the condemnation of authority that is present in the Divine Comedy, as it is in many of the Castlevania games, with the series’s primary authority figure being the bishop who executes Dracula’s wife and later threatens to wipe out the only group opposing the vampires.

Unlike Inferno, though, the series does not use this character to point out any contemporary figures or use this to critique any modern authorities. A comparison could possibly be made between the relationship of Trevor Belmont and the Elder to that of Dante and Virgil, as the Elder pushes Trevor into action against the vampires, but this similarity is tangential at best. This in no way detracts from the series, which is successful in adapting the games both in tone and in spirit, but it must be said that it does so while also removing any semblance of any significance with the Divine Comedy.

Conclusion

There’s a good reason why Akumajo Dracula has persisted into the modern day beyond building off one of the most beloved genre conventions in the modern era, the vampire itself, the series is also steeped in references to classic literature. Beyond cursory references to Bram Stoker’s Dracula, the formula of powering through level after level to reach the villain has its roots in Dante’s Divine Comedy, and some of the thematic elements of sin, particularly morals condemning greed and treachery, have slowly seeped into the series’ narrative. Castlevania is about more than just vampires, it’s about what vampires represent; the most twisted, soulless mirror-image of humanity itself.

Images

  1. “The microcosm of Dracula as a stand-in for the Christian Lucifer, as a Lord of Hell, a tragic figure that is both to be feared and pitied, is not an accident.”
    a. “Dracula-SotN.jpg”Source: https://www.first4figures.com/castlevania-symphony-of-the-night-dracula-standard-edition.html Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. Konami, 1997. Sony PlayStation game.
    b. “DVinfernoLuciferKingOfHell_m.jpg”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante%27s_Satan#/media/File:DVinfernoLuciferKingOfHell_m.jpg
  2. “As our viewpoint into the Inferno, or into Castlevania’s boundaries on Limbo, the parallels between Dante as the protagonist, and Simon Belmont are profound.”
    c. “SimonBelmont.jpg”
    Source: https://castlevania.fandom.com/wiki/Simon_Belmont
    d. “Alighieri_Protagonist.png”
    Source: https://crimereads.com/author/matthewpearl/
  3. “Simon’s bride, Selena (known by various names in ancillary fiction), despite being largely written out of the narrative, remains an apocryphal parallel to Alighieri’s Beatrice.”
    a. “SelenaBelmont.jpg”
    Source: https://www.deviantart.com/inabiuchiha98/art/Selena-Belmont-977847575
    b. “SelenaBelmont2.jpg”
    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q859ehoT8GY
    c. “oesterelydantebeatrice.jpg”
    Source: https://eclecticlight.co/2019/07/30/the-divine-comedy-purgatory-8-matelda-beatrice-in-her-chariot/
  4. “Fulfilling a ‘lancer’ archetype and subversive guide to several Belmonts entering a supernatural world he’s more familiar with, Alucard maps very neatly to Dante’s Virgil.”
     a. “Alucard-MoonlightRhapsody.jpg”
    Source: https://castlevania.fandom.com/wiki/Alucard
    b. “Dante-and-Virgil-in-Hell.jpg”
    Source: https://academiaaesthetics.com/gallery/dante-and-virgil-in-hell/

With a BA in English from the University of Massachusetts and his service in the public library system, Marcelo Gusmão’s considerable experience has served him and this endeavor well. Since joining Steam-Funk Studios in 2018, he’s demonstrated a blend of exacting, finely honed analysis, boundless creativity and skillful interpretation, all framed by a vigorous joie de vivre for all things nerd culture. A key member of SFS’ Intermediate writing and editorial staff, he’s penned several series.

Resources

  1. Castlevania. Nintendo Entertainment System, Konami, 1986.
  2.  Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest. Nintendo Entertainment System, Konami, 1987.
  3. Castlevania: Bloodlines. Sega Genesis, Konami, 1994.
  4. Stoker, Bram, et al. “Dracula”, Dracula, Frankenstein, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: The Gothic Trilogy in Only One Volume (complete and Unabridged Versions by Bram Stoker, Mary Shelley and Robert Louis Stevenson). France, BoD-Books on demand, 2019, pp. 20, 24-25, 123, 340, 343.
  5. Alighieri, Dante. “The Inferno.” In The Divine Comedy. Translated by John Ciardi. New York: New American Library, 2009, pp. 24, 32, 43, 61.
  6. Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow. Nintendo DS, Konami, 2003.
  7. Ciardi, John. Notes on Canto III of The Inferno, pp. 36.
  8. Castlevania: Lament of Innocence. Playstation 2, Konami, 2003.
  9. “Forgotten One (Lords of Shadow).” Castlevania Wiki, FANDOM, 26 Sep 2020. castlevania.fandom.com/wiki/Forgotten_One_(Lords_of_Shadow
  10. Castlevania: Lords of Shadow. Playstation 3, Konami, 2010.
  11. Castlevania: Lords of Shadow: Mirror of Fate. PC Windows Version, Konami, 2013.
  12. Ellis, Warren et al. Castlevania. Frederator Studios, Shankar Animation, Project 51, 2017–2021.